JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Top 10 Basaloid Neoplasms of the Sinonasal Tract.

BACKGROUND: Basaloid neoplasms of the sinonasal tract represent a significant group of tumors with histological overlap but often with different etiologies (i.e., viral, genetics), clinical management, and prognostic significance.

METHODS: Review.

RESULTS: "Basaloid" generally refers to cells with coarse chromatin in round nuclei and sparse cytoplasm, resembling cells of epithelial basal layers or imparting an "immature" appearance. Tumors with this characteristic in the sinonasal tract are represented by a spectrum of benign to high-grade malignant neoplasms, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, NUT carcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, SWI/SNF complex-deficient carcinomas, and adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma.

CONCLUSION: In some instances, histology alone may be sufficient for diagnosis. However, limited biopsy material or fine-needle aspiration specimens may be particularly challenging. Therefore, often other diagnostic procedures, including a combination of histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA and RNA testing, and molecular genetics are necessary to establish an accurate diagnosis.

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