Motor Proficiency, Manual Dexterity, and Visual Perception in School-age Children With ADHD: Contribution of Different Comorbidities.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with a number of other psychiatric conditions. The goal of this study was to investigate whether motor skills, manual dexterity, and visual perception differ in the presence of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric conditions in school-age boys by comparing them to a group of children with typical development (TD). We evaluated 81 boys 6 to 10 years of age in 5 groups: ADHD only (n=18); ADHD+specific learning disorders (ADHD+SLDs) (n=17); ADHD+oppositional defiant disorder (n=16); ADHD+anxiety disorders (n=15); and TD (n=15). The participants with ADHD only and those with ADHD+comorbidity had significantly lower scores than the participants in the TD group in every area we evaluated. The lowest scores were observed in the ADHD+SLD group in all motor skills domains except for the fine motor precision field. Furthermore, the group with ADHD+SLD had statistically significantly lower scores than the 3 other groups with ADHD+comorbidity in 3 areas: balance, upper extremity coordination, and speed and agility. Motor problems in patients with ADHD and comorbid conditions may not be a focus of attention in clinics. However, especially in the case of comorbid conditions accompanying ADHD, it is important to consider problems in motor skills, manual dexterity, and visual perception in evaluation and treatment to increase these children's quality of life.
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