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Point-of-care urine tenofovir testing to predict HIV drug resistance among individuals with virologic failure.

AIDS 2023 Februrary 18
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the utility of a point-of-care (POC) urine tenofovir (TFV) assay, developed to objectively assess adherence, to predict HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in people failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART).

DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed TFV levels as a biomarker of adherence in urine specimens collected during a clinical trial that enrolled adults with virologic failure on first-line ART in Uganda and South Africa.

METHODS: Urine specimens were analyzed from participants on TFV-containing regimens who had a viral load >1,000 copies/mL and paired genotypic resistance test (GRT) results. We assessed recent ART TFV adherence with a qualitative POC lateral flow urine assay with a cut-off value of 1,500 ng/mL. We then calculated performance characteristics of the POC urine TFV assay to predict HIVDR, defined as intermediate or high-level resistance to any component of the current ART regimen.

RESULTS: Urine specimens with paired plasma GRT results were available from 283 participants. The most common ART regimen during study conduct was emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and efavirenz. The overall prevalence of HIVDR was 86% (n=243/283). Of those with TFV detected on the POC assay, 91% (n = 204/224) had HIVDR, versus only 66% (n = 39/59) among those with no TFV detected (p-value<0.001). Positive and negative predictive values of the assay to predict HIVDR were 91% and 34%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: In populations with a high prevalence of HIVDR, the POC urine TFV assay can provide a low-cost, rapid method to guide requirements for confirmatory resistance testing and inform the need for regimen change.

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