JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
REVIEW
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Ferroptotic mechanisms and therapeutic targeting of iron metabolism and lipid peroxidation in the kidney.

Ferroptosis is a mechanism of regulated necrotic cell death characterized by iron-dependent, lipid peroxidation-driven membrane destruction that can be inhibited by glutathione peroxidase 4. Morphologically, it is characterized by cellular, organelle and cytoplasmic swelling and the loss of plasma membrane integrity, with the release of intracellular components. Ferroptosis is triggered in cells with dysregulated iron and thiol redox metabolism, whereby the initial robust but selective accumulation of hydroperoxy polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phospholipids is further propagated through enzymatic and non-enzymatic secondary mechanisms, leading to formation of oxidatively truncated electrophilic species and their adducts with proteins. Thus, ferroptosis is dependent on the convergence of iron, thiol and lipid metabolic pathways. The kidney is particularly susceptible to redox imbalance. A growing body of evidence has linked ferroptosis to acute kidney injury in the context of diverse stimuli, such as ischaemia-reperfusion, sepsis or toxins, and to chronic kidney disease, suggesting that ferroptosis may represent a novel therapeutic target for kidney disease. However, further work is needed to address gaps in our understanding of the triggers, execution and spreading mechanisms of ferroptosis.

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