Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Immunogenetic variations predict immune-related adverse events for PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.

BACKGROUND: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have brought remarkable benefits but can cause profound immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The host immunogenetic background is likely to play a role in irAE susceptibility. In this study, we aimed to identify potential immunogenetic biomarkers to predict irAEs.

METHODS: Patients with solid tumours receiving PD-1/PD-L1 blockade were recruited and followed up. Genes considered pivotal contributors to tumour-immunity and autoimmune diseases were screened out via protein-protein interaction network and Cytoscape. Consequently, thirty-nine variants in eighteen genes were genotyped using the multiplex genotyping assay. Association analysis between genetic variants and irAEs as well as irAEs-free survival was performed.

RESULTS: Four immunogenetic variants as predictive biomarkers of irAEs were identified. The C allele of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 (MAPK1) rs3810610 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.495, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.093-2.044, P = 0.012) was a risk predictor while the A allele of PTPRC rs6428474 (OR = 0.717, 95% CI = 0.521-0.987, P = 0.041) was a protective factor for all-grade irAEs. The A allele of ADAD1 rs17388568 (OR = 2.599, 95% CI = 1.355-4.983, P = 0.003) increased the risk while the G allele of IL6 rs1800796 (OR = 0.425, 95% CI = 0.205-0.881, P = 0.018) protected patients from high-grade irAEs. Significant immunogenetic variants reached a similar tendency in PD-1 blockade or lung cancer subgroups. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the MAPK1 rs3810610 was an independent factor regarding all-grade irAEs-free survival (CC versus CT or TT: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.52-0.99, P = 0.042). ADAD1 rs17388568 (AA versus AG or GG: HR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.025-0.49, P = 0.004) and IL6 rs1800796 (GG or GC versus CC: HR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.315-7.29, P = 0.01) were independent variables for high-grade irAEs-free survival.

CONCLUSION: We first identified several immunogenetic polymorphisms associated with irAEs and irAEs-free survival in PD-1/PD-L1 blockade-treated tumour patients, and they may serve as potential predictive biomarkers.

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