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Mitochondrial bioenergetic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus immune cell subsets: Contributions to pathogenesis and clinical applications.

Lupus 2023 March 14
The association of dysregulated metabolism in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis has prompted investigations into metabolic rewiring and the involvement of mitochondrial metabolism as a driver of disease through NLRP3 inflammasome activation, disruption of mitochondrial DNA maintenance, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. The use of Agilent Seahorse Technology to gain functional in situ metabolic insights of selected cell types from SLE patients has identified key parameters that are dysregulated during disease. Mitochondrial functional assessments specifically can detect dysfunction through oxygen consumption rate (OCR), spare respiratory capacity, and maximal respiration measurements, which, when coupled with disease activity scores could show potential as markers of disease activity. CD4+ and CD8 + T cells have been assessed in this way and show that oxygen consumption rate, spare respiratory capacity, and maximal respiration are blunted in CD8 + T cells, with results not being as clear cut in CD4 + T cells. Additionally, glutamine, processed by mitochondrial substrate level phosphorylation is emerging as a key role player in the expansion and differentiation of Th1, Th17, ϒδ T cells, and plasmablasts. The role that circulating leukocytes play in acting as bioenergetic biomarkers of diseases such as diabetes suggests that this may also be a tool to detect preclinical SLE. Therefore, the metabolic characterization of immune cell subsets and the collection of metabolic data during interventions is also essential. The delineation of the metabolic tuning of immune cells in this way could lead to novel strategies in treating metabolically demanding processes characteristic of autoimmune diseases such as SLE.

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