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Fetal phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome with a molecular confirmation.

OBJECTIVE: To present the fetal features of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) with a molecular confirmation.

STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of 13 cases with CdLS diagnosed by prenatal and postnatal genetic testing and physical examination. Clinical and laboratory data were collected and reviewed for these cases, including maternal demographics, prenatal sonographic findings, chromosomal microarray and exome sequencing (ES) results, and pregnancy outcomes.

RESULTS: All of the 13 cases were detected to have a CdLS-causing variant, with 8 variants identified in the NIPBL gene, 3 in SMC1A, and 2 in HDAC8. Five had normal ultrasound scans during pregnancy; all were caused by variants of SMC1A or HDAC8. For the eight cases with NIPBL variants, all had prenatal ultrasound markers. Three had first trimester ultrasound markers including increased nuchal translucency in one and limb defects in three. Four presented with normal ultrasound in the first trimester, but abnormal ultrasound in the second trimester, including micrognathia in two, hypospadias in one and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in one. IUGR as the isolated feature was identified in one case in the third trimester.

CONCLUSION: The prenatal diagnosis of CdLS caused by NIPBLvariants is possible. It seems to remain challenging to detect non-classic CdLS only relying on ultrasound examination.

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