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First Reported Case of Malignant Ectomesenchymoma with p.Leu122Arg Mutation in MYOD1 Gene: Extensive Intra- and Extracranial Tumor in a 15-Year-Old Female.

BACKGROUND: Ectomesenchymomas (EMs) are extremely rare neoplasms composed of malignant mesenchymal components and neuroectodermal derivatives. They are described in a wide variety of locations, with the head and neck region being one of the most frequently involved areas. EMs are usually managed as high-risk rhabdomyosarcomas and have similar outcomes.

METHODS: We present the case of a 15-year-old female with an EM that arose in the parapharyngeal space and extended into the intracranial space.

RESULTS: Histologically, the tumor presented an embryonal rhabdomyosarcomatous mesenchymal component and the neuroectodermal component was constituted by isolated ganglion cells. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed a p.Leu122Arg (c.365 T > G) mutation in the MYOD1 gene, a p.Ala34Gly mutation in the CDKN2A gene, and CDK4 gene amplification. The patient was treated with chemotherapy. She died 17 months after the debut of symptoms.

CONCLUSION(S): To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in English literature of an EM with this MYOD1 mutation. We suggest combining PI3K/ATK pathway inhibitors in these cases. NGS should be performed in EMs cases to detect mutations with potential treatment options.

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