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Obstetric complications and genetic risk for schizophrenia: Differential role of antenatal and perinatal events in first episode psychosis.

BACKGROUND: Obstetric complications (OCs) are key contributors to psychosis risk. However, it is unclear whether they increase psychosis vulnerability independently of genetic risk, in interaction with it, or are a manifestation of psychosis proneness. We examined the role of distinct types of OCs in terms of psychosis risk and tested whether they interact differently with genetic vulnerability, whilst accounting for other known environmental risk factors.

STUDY DESIGN: 405 participants (219 first episode psychosis patients and 186 healthy volunteers) underwent a comprehensive assessment of OCs, measured using the Lewis-Murray scale and divided into complications of pregnancy, abnormalities of foetal growth and development, and complications of delivery. Participants were compared in terms of history of OCs, polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SZ) and interactions between these.

RESULTS: Both complications of pregnancy and abnormalities of foetal growth were significantly associated with case-control status (p = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively), whereas complications of delivery were not. PRS-SZ showed a significant association with psychosis (p = 0.04), but there were no significant interactions between genetic risk for schizophrenia and OCs, either when these were considered globally or separated based on their timeframe.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed no significant interaction between genetic and obstetric vulnerability, yet distinct types of OCs may have a different impact on psychosis risk, based on their nature and timeframe. Examining their differential role might clarify their relative contributions to this risk.

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