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To Compare Short-term Surgical Outcome among Patients given Continuous Postoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis and those given no Postoperative Antibiotics after Urethroplasty for Hypospadias: A Pilot Study.

INTRODUCTION: There is no well-accepted guideline or uniform practice for the usage of prophylactic antibiotics along with urethroplasty for hypospadias. As antibiotic resistance is growing, it is imperative to rationalize the usage of antibiotics when a patient is operated for hypospadias.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study is aimed at finding if there is any difference in outcome if prophylactic antibiotics are given after urethroplasty for hypospadias.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled study.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty patients between 6 months and 12 years of age were included in the pilot study. All patients received a single preoperative antibiotic and surgery as per the discretion of the operating surgeon. The participants were randomly assigned to Group A or B, Group A not receiving any prophylactic antibiotic after surgery, and Group B receiving prophylactic antibiotics till indwelling urethral catheter was in situ as per the present antibiotic policy of the institute. The patients were followed up clinically at catheter removal, 1 week after surgery and 1 month after surgery. Urine was analyzed at the start of surgery and after catheter removal. Data were tabulated and analyzed using nonparametric Fischer's exact test with help of Epi Info™ v5.5.8.

RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were included in Group A and 16 in Group B. The clinical profile is presented in the detailed manuscript. Although pus cells could be demonstrated on urine examination in 82.5% of the study participants, only 10% grew organisms on culture media. No difference could be demonstrated among the two groups statistically. On following up with the patients for 1 month, the groups were comparable with respect to surgical site infections, and surgical complications such as urethrocutaneous fistula/dehiscence and thin stream. [Table: see text].

DISCUSSION: There was a wide variability among practicing pediatric urologists in prescribing antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing urethroplasty for hypospadias. In the Urologic Surgery Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Policy by the American Urology Association, no recommendation has been made with respect to urethroplasty. Our results are in concurrence with the available English literature which has not shown any benefit of prophylactic antibiotics after hypospadias repair.

CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics may not have a definite role in the prevention of surgical complications and it may be imperative to avoid unnecessary antibiotics to reduce antibiotic resistance.

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