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ICA agenesis with transcavernous anastomosis: a systematic review.

PURPOSE: To present two cases of Internal Carotid Artery (ICA) agenesis and conduct a systematic review to assess for associations with other anomalies and intracranial aneurysms.

METHODOLOGY: We performed a retrospective review of published cases of patients with ICA agenesis with intercavernous anastomosis in MEDLINE database on August 2022 using search terms "internal carotid artery", "agenesis" and "transcavernous anastomosis". We also included two cases of ICA agenesis with type D collateral that we encountered.

RESULTS: Total of 46 studies that included 48 patients and two of our cases resulted in 50 patients. Only 70% of studies reported the location of a collateral vessel of which more than two-thirds were on the floor of sella. More than half of the vessels connected cavernous segments of ICA. A1 segment ipsilateral to the side of ICA agenesis was absent in most of the cases but was not true for all cases. Aneurysm was seen in more than one-quarter of the patients. It can also mimic microadenoma as in prior reported cases as well as in one of our cases.

CONCLUSION: ICA agenesis with type D collateral is a rare anomaly but clinically relevant due to the increased risk of an aneurysm or mimic microadenoma or false alarm for occlusion of ICA but knowledge of this rare variant can help in better management of these patients.

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