JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Glucose Counterregulation: Clinical Consequences of Impaired Sympathetic Responses in Diabetic Dogs and Cats.

Insulin induced hypoglycemia (IIH) is common in veterinary patients and limits the clinician's ability to obtain adequate glycemic control with insulin therapy. Not all diabetic dogs and cats with IIH exhibit clinical signs and hypoglycemia might be missed by routine blood glucose curve monitoring. In diabetic patients, counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia are impaired (lack of decrease in insulin levels, lack of increase in glucagon, and attenuation of the parasympathetic and sympathoadrenal autonomic nervous systems) and have been documented in people and in dogs but not yet in cats. Antecedent hypoglycemic episodes increase the patient's risk for future severe hypoglycemia.

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