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Necrostatin-1S mitigates type-2 diabetes-associated cognitive decrement and lipotoxicity-induced neuro-microglia changes through p-RIPK-RIPK3-p-MLKL axis.

Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with neuroinflammation and cognitive decrement. Necroptosis programmed necrosis is emerging as the major contributing factor to central changes. It is best characterized by the upregulation of p-RIPK(Receptor Interacting Kinase), p-RIPK3, and the phosphorylated-MLKL (mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein). The present study aims to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Necrostatin (Nec-1S), a p-RIPK inhibitor, on cognitive changes in the experimental T2DM model in C57BL/6 mice and lipotoxicity-induced neuro-microglia changes in neuro2A and BV2 cells. Further, the study also explores whether Nec-1S would restore mitochondrial and autophago-lysosomal function.T2DM was developed in mice by feeding them a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and injecting a single dose of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, i.p) on the 12th week. Nec-1S was administered for 3 weeks at (10 mg/kg, i.p) once every 3 days. Lipotoxicity was induced in neuro2A, and BV2 cells using 200 µM palmitate/bovine serum albumin conjugate. Nec-1S (50 µM), and GSK-872(10 µM) were further used to explore their relative effect. The neurobehavioral performance was assessed using mazes and task-assisted performance tests. To decipher the hypothesis plasma parameters, western blot, immunofluorescence, microscopy, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR studies were carried out. The Nec-1S treatment restored cognitive performance and reduced the p-RIPK-p-RIPK3-p-MLKL mediated neuro-microglia changes in the brain and in cells as well, under lipotoxic stress. Nec-1S reduced tau, and amyloid oligomer load. Moreover, Nec-1S restored mitochondrial function and autophago-lysosome clearance. The findings highlight the central impact of metabolic syndrome and how Nes-1S, by acting as a multifaceted agent, improved central functioning.

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