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Risk factors for progression of the severity of locomotive syndrome: A two-year longitudinal observational study.

BACKGROUND: The risk factors for progression of severity of locomotive syndrome (LS) remain unclear.

METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal observational study of 1148 community-dwelling residents (median age, 68.0 years old; 548 males, 600 females) from 2016 to 2018. LS was assessed by the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25), and total scores of ≤6 points, 7-15 points, 16-23 points, and ≥24 points were diagnosed as non-LS, LS-1, LS-2, and LS-3, respectively. If the LS severity in 2018 was higher than in 2016, the case was defined as progression of LS severity; otherwise, it was defined as non-progressive LS. We compared the age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, living situation, car use, chronic musculoskeletal pain, comorbidities, metabolic syndrome, physical activity, and LS severity in 2016 between the progression and non-progression groups. Furthermore, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to elucidate the risk factors for progression of LS severity.

RESULTS: Participants in the progression group had a significantly older age, a lower rate of car use, a higher rate of low back pain, a higher rate of hip pain, a higher rate of knee pain, a higher GLFS-25 total score, and a higher rate of LS-2 than those in the non-progression group. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, female gender, higher body mass index (≥25.0 kg/m2 ), presence of low back pain, and presence of hip pain were risk factors for the progression of LS within two years.

CONCLUSIONS: To prevent the progression of LS severity, related prophylaxis strategies should be implemented, especially for individuals with the above-mentioned characteristics. Further longitudinal studies with a longer observation period are necessary.

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