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Regulation of germline proteostasis by HSF1 and insulin/IGF-1 signaling.

Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is essential for cellular function and organismal health and requires the concerted actions of protein synthesis, folding, transport, and turnover. In sexually reproducing organisms, the immortal germline lineage passes genetic information across generations. Accumulating evidence indicates the importance of proteome integrity for germ cells as genome stability. As gametogenesis involves very active protein synthesis and is highly energy-demanding, it has unique requirements for proteostasis regulation and is sensitive to stress and nutrient availability. The heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a key transcriptional regulator of cellular response to cytosolic and nuclear protein misfolding has evolutionarily conserved roles in germline development. Similarly, insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling, a major nutrient-sensing pathway, impacts many aspects of gametogenesis. Here, we focus on HSF1 and IIS to review insights into their roles in germline proteostasis and discuss the implications on gamete quality control during stress and aging.

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