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Toward precision sleep medicine: variations in sleep outcomes among disaggregated Asian Americans in the National Health Interview Survey (2006-2018).

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Asian Americans (AAs) report higher rates of insufficient sleep than non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). It is unclear how sleep outcomes differ among disaggregated Asian subgroups.

METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (2006-2018) was used to analyze self-reported sleep duration and quality measures for AA subgroups (Chinese [n=11,056], Asian Indian [n=11,249], Filipino [n = 13,211], and other Asians [n = 21,767]). Outcomes included hours of sleep per day, the number of days reporting trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, waking up rested, and taking sleep medication in the past week. Subsetted multivariate logistic regression was used to assess factors impacting sleep outcomes by ethnicity.

RESULTS: 29.2% of NHWs, 26.4% of Chinese, 24.5% of Asian Indians, and 38.4% of Filipinos reported insufficient sleep duration. Filipinos were less likely to report sufficient sleep duration (OR 0.58, [CI95% 0.53-0.63]) and more likely to report trouble falling asleep (1.19, [1.04-1.36]) than NHWs. Chinese and Asian Indians had less trouble staying asleep ((0.66, [0.57-0.76]), (0.50, [0.43-0.58])) and falling asleep ((0.77, [0.67-0.90]), (0.71, [0.61-0.81]) than NHWs, and Asian Indians were more likely to wake feeling well rested (1.71, [1.51-1.92]). All Asian subgroups were less likely to report using sleep medications than NHWs. Foreign-born status had a negative association with sufficient sleep duration in Filipinos, but a positive association in Asian Indians and Chinese.

CONCLUSIONS: Filipinos report the highest burden of poor sleep outcomes and Asian Indians report significantly better sleep outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of disaggregating Asian ethnic subgroups to address their health needs.

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