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Impact of BMI and comorbidities on efficacy of once-weekly semaglutide: Post hoc analyses of the STEP 1 randomized trial.

Obesity 2023 March 7
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effects of semaglutide on body weight, cardiometabolic risk factors, and glycemic status in individuals categorized by baseline BMI with or without additional obesity-related comorbidities, including prediabetes and high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

METHODS: This was a post hoc exploratory subgroup analysis of the Semaglutide Treatment Effect in People with Obesity (STEP) 1 trial (NCT03548935), in which participants without diabetes and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 , or BMI ≥27 kg/m2 with ≥1 weight-related comorbidity, were randomized to once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide 2.4 mg or placebo for 68 weeks. For this analysis, individuals were categorized into subgroups based on baseline BMI <35 versus ≥35 kg/m2 (with no additional criteria, with ≥1 comorbidity, with prediabetes, and with prediabetes and high risk of CVD).

RESULTS: Mean changes in body weight from baseline to week 68 with semaglutide were -16.2% and -14.0% in the subgroups with baseline BMI <35 and ≥35 kg/m2 , respectively (both p < 0.0001 vs. placebo). Similar changes were observed in individuals with comorbidities, with prediabetes, and with prediabetes plus high CVD risk. The beneficial effects of semaglutide on cardiometabolic risk factors were consistent across all subgroups.

CONCLUSIONS: This subgroup analysis confirms that semaglutide is effective in individuals with baseline BMI <35 and ≥35 kg/m2 , including in those with comorbidities.

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