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Efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety of subcutaneous C1-esterase inhibitor as prophylaxis in Japanese patients with hereditary angioedema: Results of a Phase 3 study.

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare and potentially life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of angioedema. HAE types I and II result from deficient or dysfunctional C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). This Phase 3 study assessed the efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), and safety of subcutaneous (SC) C1-INH in Japanese patients with HAE.

METHODS: The prospective, open-label, multicenter, single-arm Phase 3 study recruited patients with HAE types I or II to an initial run-in period, followed by a 16-week treatment period where patients received 60 IU/kg C1-INH (SC) twice weekly. The two primary endpoints were the time-normalized number of HAE attacks per month and C1-INH functional activity at Week 16.

RESULTS: Nine patients entered the treatment period and completed the study. Treatment with C1-INH (SC) significantly reduced the mean monthly attack rate from 3.7 during the run-in period to 0.3 during treatment (exploratory p value of within-patient comparison = 0.004). After the last dose of C1-INH (SC) at Week 16, the mean trough concentration of C1-INH was 59.8%, and the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve to the end of the dosing period and to the last sample were 5317.1 and 13,091.5 h•%, respectively. During the study, there were no deaths, serious adverse events, or adverse events leading to study discontinuation.

CONCLUSIONS: C1-INH (SC) (60 IU/kg twice weekly) was efficacious and well tolerated as a prophylaxis against HAE attacks in Japanese patients with HAE types I or II, which was supported by the increased and maintained C1-INH functional activity. EudraCT Number 2019-003921-99; JapicCTI-205273.

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