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Application of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis of sleep apnea.

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Machine learning (ML) models have been employed in the setting of sleep disorders. This review aims to summarize the existing data about the role of ML techniques in the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of sleep related breathing disorders.

METHODS: A systematic search in MedLine, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through January 2022 was performed.

RESULTS: Our search strategy revealed 132 studies that were included in the systematic review. Existing data show that ML models have been successfully used for diagnostic purposes. Specifically, ML models showed good performance in diagnosing sleep apnea using easily obtained features from the electrocardiogram, pulse oximetry and sound signals. Similarly, ML showed good performance for the classification of sleep apnea into obstructive and central categories, as well as predicting apnea severity. Existing data show promising results for the ML-based guided treatment of sleep apnea. Specifically, the prediction of outcomes following surgical treatment and optimization of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, can be guided by ML models.

CONCLUSIONS: The adoption and implementation of ML in the field of sleep related breathing disorders is promising. Advancements in wearable sensor technology and ML models can help clinicians predict, diagnose and classify sleep apnea more accurately and efficiently.

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