JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor-associated perioperative ketoacidosis: a systematic review of case reports.

Journal of Anesthesia 2023 Februrary 28
Although the recommended preoperative cessation period for sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) changed in 2020 (from 24 h to 3-4 days preoperatively) to reduce the risk of SGLT2i-associated perioperative ketoacidosis (SAPKA), the validity of the new recommendation has not been verified. Using case reports, we assessed the new recommendation effectiveness and extrapolated precipitating factors for SAPKA. We searched electronic databases up to June 1, 2022 to assess SAPKA (blood pH < 7.3 and blood or urine ketone positivity within 30 days postoperatively in patients taking SGLT2i). We included 76 publications with 99 cases. The preoperative SGLT2i cessation duration was reported for 59 patients (59.6%). In all cases with available cessation periods, the SGLT2is were interrupted < 3 days preoperatively. No SAPKA cases with > 2-day preoperative cessation periods were found. Many case reports lack important information for estimating precipitating factors, including preoperative SGLT2i cessation period, body mass index, baseline hemoglobin A1c level, details of perioperative fluid management, and type of anesthesia. Our study suggested that preoperative SGLT2i cessation for at least 3 days could prevent SAPKA. Large prospective epidemiologic studies are needed to identify risk factors for SAPKA.

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