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Advances in Sinus Surgery for Nasal Polyps.

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is comprised of a diverse group of endotypes that cause significant morbidity for afflicted patients. While endoscopic sinus surgery helps ameliorate the disease, polyps frequently recur. Newer strategies are intended to provide access for topical steroid irrigations in attempts to improve the disease process and quality of life, and decrease overall recurrence of polyps.

OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature examining the latest surgical approaches for CRSwNP.

METHODS: Review article.

RESULTS: In dealing with the recalcitrant nature of CRSwNP, surgical techniques have simultaneously become more nuanced and aggressive. Bony resection in anatomically unfavorable areas such as the frontal, maxillary, and sphenoid outflow regions, replacing diseased or denuded mucosa with healthy grafts or flaps at the neo-ostia, and introducing drug-eluting biomaterials to newly opened sinus outflow tracts are highlights in the recent advancements in sinus surgery for CRSwNP. The Draf 3 or modified endoscopic Lothrop procedure has become a standard technique and demonstrated to improve quality of life and decrease polyp recurrence. A number of mucosal grafting or mucosal flap techniques have been described that cover exposed bone of the neo-ostium and evidence shows that this improves healing and diameter of the Draf 3. Partial middle turbinectomy, while controversial, appears to help decrease polyp recurrence in long-term follow-up studies. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy improves access to the maxillary sinus mucosa, facilitates debridement and, particularly, in the cystic fibrosis nasal polyp patient, improves overall management of the disease. Sphenoid drill-out procedure provides wider access for topical steroid irrigations and also may improve management of CRSwNP.

CONCLUSION: Surgical intervention remains a mainstay of therapy for CRSwNP. Newer techniques revolve around improving access for topical steroid therapy.

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