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Flank pain has a significant adverse impact on quality of life in ADPKD: the CYSTic-QoL study.

BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disorder and a major cause of kidney failure worldwide. However, its impact on quality-of-life has not been systematically explored.

METHODS: The CYSTic-QoL study was an observational study designed to study quality-of-life in adult European ADPKD patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2 . A total of 465 patients were recruited from six expert European centres with baseline data recorded, including health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), incorporating a Kidney Disease QoL short form questionnaire (KDQoL-SF, version 1.3), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for total kidney volume (TKV) measurements and DNA for genotyping. The cohort was stratified by baseline eGFR, TKV or genotype and correlated with HRQoL scores. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were applied to examine the relationship between HRQoL and variables of interest. KDQoL-SF scores were calculated using an online tool provided by the RAND organization. For 36-item short form values, mean centre scores were normalized to their native populations.

RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 43 years and 55% were female, with a mean eGFR of 77 mL/min/1.73 m2  and height-adjusted TKV (ht-TKV) of 849 mL/min; 66% had PKD1 pathogenic variants. ADPKD patients uniformly reported decreased general health and less energy, with the majority also experiencing poorer physical, mental or emotional health and limitations in social functioning. A total of 32.5% of participants experienced flank pain, which was significantly and negatively correlated with the majority of KDQoL-SF subscales by multivariate analysis. Higher ht-TKV and lower eGFR were negatively associated with decreased energy and poorer physical health, respectively, although not with flank pain.

CONCLUSION: ADPKD patients suffer from significantly decreased QoL in multiple domains, exacerbated particularly by chronic pain.

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