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Analysis of Neoclassical Canons in Adult Kenyans of Indian Descent.

Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional. Objective: To establish anthropometric norms and test the validity of four neoclassical canons among Kenyans of Indian descent. Methods: Using direct anthropometric landmarks, 3 vertical and 4 horizontal measurements were made on the faces of 130 adult Kenyans of Indian descent. The mean of each anthropometric measurement was calculated and a student t-test was used to identify significant gender differences. These results were compared to four neoclassical canons and the percentage of each canon and its variants were recorded. A chi-square test was then performed to assess any gender differences between these findings. Results: When comparing sexes, the anthropometric means of males were larger than those of females except for eye fissure length. In addition, only the upper third displayed sexual dimorphism. As for the neoclassical canons, the orbital canon was found to apply to 20.0% of males and 21.6% of females, followed by the naso-oral canon found in 16.4% of males and 17.6% of females, and the orbito-nasal canon present in 14.5% of males and 18.9% of females. The vertical canon was not found to be applicable to any participant. Conclusion: The facial morphometric measurements in this population differ from the described neoclassical canons since they do not apply to the majority of these individuals. Therefore surgeons should be guided by the observed population-specific differences during reconstructive and facial aesthetic surgery.

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