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Coagulopathy is Initiated with Endothelial Dysfunction and Disrupted Fibrinolysis in Patients with COVID-19 Disease.

UNLABELLED: A substantial group of patients suffer from Covid-19 (CAC) coagulopathy and are presented with thrombosis. The pathogenesis involved in CAC is not fully understood. We evaluated the hemostatic and inflammatory parameters of 51 hospitalized Covid-19 adult patients and 21 controls. The parameters analyzed were danger signal molecule (High molecular weight group box protein-1/HMGBP-1), platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), D-dimer, fibrinogen, endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), soluble E-selectin, soluble P-selectin, thrombomodulin, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble fibrin monomer complex (SFMC), platelet-derived microparticles (PDMP), β-thromboglobulin, antithrombin and protein C. The main objective of our study was to investigate which part of the hemostatic system was mostly affected at the admission of Covid-19 patients and whether these parameters could differentiate intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients. In this prospective case-control study, 51 patients ≥ 18 years who are hospitalized with the diagnosis of Covid-19 and 21 healthy control subjects were included. We divided the patients into two groups according to their medical progress, either in ICU or non-ICU group. Regarding the outcome, patients were again categorized as a survivor and non-survivor groups. Blood samples were collected from patients at admission at the time of hospitalization before the administration of any treatment for Covid-19. The analyzes of the study were made with the IBM SPSS V22 program. p  < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 51 adult patients (F/M: 24/27) (13 ICU and 38 non-ICU) were included in the study cohort. The mean age of the patients was 68.1 ± 14.4 years. The control group consisted of 21 age and sex-matched healthy individuals. All of the patients were hospitalized. In a group of 13 patients, Covid-19 progressed to a severe form, and were hospitalized in ICU. We found out that the levels of fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT), endothelial protein-C receptor (EPCR), D-dimer, soluble E-selectin, soluble P-selectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) were increased; whereas, the levels of soluble fibrin monomer complex (SFMC), platelet-derived microparticles (PDMP), antithrombin and protein-C were decreased in Covid-19 patients compared to the control group at hospital admission. Tissue plasminogen activator was the only marker with a significantly different median level between ICU and non-ICU groups ( p  < 0.001). In accordance with the previous literature, we showed that Covid-19 associated coagulopathy is distinct from sepsis-induced DIC with prominent early endothelial involvement and fibrinolytic shut-down. Reconstruction of endothelial function at early stages of infection may protect patients from progressing to ICU hospitalization. We believe that after considering the patient's bleeding risk, early administration of LMWH therapy for Covid-19, even in an outpatient setting, may be helpful both for restoring endothelial function and anticoagulation. The intensity of anticoagulation in non-ICU and ICU Covid-19 patients should be clarified with further studies.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12291-023-01118-3.

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