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Comparison of TBI and CVA outcomes: Durability of gains following post-hospital neurological rehabilitation.

NeuroRehabilitation 2023 Februrary 17
BACKGROUND: With the effectiveness of post-hospital brain injury rehabilitation clearly demonstrated, research focus has shifted to durability of treatment gains over time.

OBJECTIVE: Study objectives were threefold: (1) examined the stability of outcomes following post-hospital rehabilitation for persons with acquired brain injury, (2) compare differences in short and long-term outcome for TBI and CVA groups, and (3) identify predictors of long-term outcomes.

METHODS: Subjects (n = 108) were selected from 2,177 neurologically impaired adults with consecutive discharges from 18 post-hospital programs in 12 states from 2011 through 2019. The study sample included TBI, CVA, and Mixed neurological groups. All persons were evaluated using the Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory -4 Participation Index at four assessment intervals: admission, discharge, and 3 and 12 month follow-up. Additional analyses included repeated measures 2x4 design addressing TBI and CVA by the four measurement periods, and hierarchical multiple regression to identify outcome predictors.

RESULTS: The total sample demonstrated a reduction in Participation T-scores (indicating less disability) from admission to discharge. Reductions in disability were maintained at the 3 and 12 month follow-up assessments (Greenhouse-Geisser F (2.37) = 76.87, p <  0.001, partial eta2 = 0.418, power to detect = 0.99). The CVA group demonstrated greater disability at each assessment interval, however, those differences were not statistically significant. Significant predictors of outcome at 12 months post-discharge were length of stay in program and type of injury. TBIs with longer length of stay experienced better outcome at 12 months than non-TBIs with shorter length of stays (hierarchical multiple regression adjusted R2 = 0.085, p <  0.05).

CONCLUSION: Post-hospital residential neurorehabilitation programs provide a return on investment. Gains are realized from admission to discharge, and maintained one year following discharge from rehabilitation.

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