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Self-perception and anticipated efficacy of the anti-dementia multimodal program in 100 older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

NeuroRehabilitation 2023 Februrary 15
BACKGROUND: Effective and sustainable interventions are clearly needed for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Despite the clinical importance of the multimodal intervention approach, only one study using a multimodal approach demonstrated promising improvements in memory, attention, and executive functions, which also correlated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) changes in cerebral activation in 50 MCI patients.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the self-perception and anticipated efficacy of each element of the BRAIN-FIT multimodal intervention program (robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT), computerized cognitive therapy, music, light, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and diaphragmatic breathing exercises) and the correlation between memory, concentration, depression, and sleep in older adults with MCI.

METHODS: One hundred participants (mean±standard deviation: 8.63±78.4 years; 47 women) with MCI were recruited from a major university medical center and community dementia relief center. The survey questionnaire comprised four domains with 21 questions, including four pertaining to general demographic characteristics, eight related to exercise and activity, three related to sleep, and nine related to the BRAIN-FIT program. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the Likert scale data. The descriptive frequencies were calculated. Additionally, Spearman's rho statistics measure the rank-order association. The statistical significance was at P <  0.05.

RESULTS: A strong correlation was observed between memory and concentration (r = 0.850, P = 0.000), memory and depression (r = 0.540, P = 0.000), memory and sleep (r = 0.502, P = 0.000), concentration and depression (r = 0.602, P = 0.000), concentration and sleep (r = 0.529, P = 0.000) and sleep and depression (r = 0.497, P = 0.000). The correlation between medical services and sleep (r = 0.249, P = 0.012) was moderate. The chi-square test revealed a significant difference in memory and low-intensity duration of exercise (χ2[3,N = 100] = 11.69, P = 0.01), concentration and high-intensity exercise duration (χ2[3,N = 100] = 10.08, P = 0.02), concentration with low-intensity exercise duration (χ2[3,N = 100] = 21.11, P = 0.00), depression with high-intensity (χ2[3,N = 100] = 10.36, P = 0.02), high-intensity duration of exercise (χ2[3,N = 100] = 10.48, P = 0.02); low-intensity (χ2[3,N = 100] = 7.90, P = 0.48), and low-intensity duration of exercise (χ2[3,N = 100] = 9.69, P = 0.02). Additionally, significant differences were observed between sleep and high-intensity (χ2[3, N = 100] = 10.36, P = 0.02), low-intensity (χ2[3, N = 100] = 18.14, P = 0.00), and low-intensity duration of exercise (χ2[3, N = 100] = 18.30, P = 0.00). Among the participants 5% answered RAGT, and 20% responded that they had experienced computerized cognitive therapy. Music therapy (20 %), diaphragmatic breathing exercises (45 %), and light therapy (10 %) were used. No patient had experienced tDCS. Conversely, 11% of the participants answered RAGT for programs they wanted to experience and 21% responded to computerized cognitive therapy. 25% of music therapy, 22% of diaphragmatic breathing exercises, 5% of light therapy, and 16% of tDCS participants said they wanted to experience it. Finally, 63% of the participants wanted to participate in the BRAIN-FIT program.

CONCLUSION: The present study's results provide clinical evidence-based insights into the utilization of BRAIN-FIT in MCI to maximize cognitive score improvement of memory, concentration, depression, and sleep. Therefore, when designing the BRAIN-FIT, six intervention items were set in proportion to the preference based on the survey, to reduce participants' feeling of repulsion. The program was configured according to exercise intensity.

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