Journal Article
Systematic Review
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Neuroimaging features of FOXR2-activated CNS neuroblastoma: A case series and systematic review.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CNS neuroblastoma, FOXR2-activated (CNS NB-FOXR2) is a newly recognized tumor type in the 2021 World Health Organization classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We aimed to investigate the clinical and neuroimaging findings of CNS NB-FOXR2 and systematically review previous publications and three new cases.

METHODS: We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and Embase databases for patients with pathologically proven CNS NB-FOXR2 with sufficient information for preoperative CT and MRI findings. Two board-certified radiologists reviewed the studies and imaging data.

RESULTS: Thirty-one patients from six previous publications and 3 patients from our hospital comprised the study population (median age, 4.2 [range: 1.4-16] years; 19 girls). Clinically, CNS NB-FOXR2 mainly affected children between 2 and 6 years (24/34, 67.6%). Nausea/vomiting and seizures were reported as the main presenting symptoms (100% in total). The tumors frequently showed hyperdensity compared to the cortex on nonenhanced CT (4/5, 80%) with calcification along the inner rim of the tumor (4/5, 80%). More than half of patients showed susceptibility artifacts indicating intratumoral hemorrhage and/or calcification (15/28, 53.6%) on T2*- and/or susceptibility-weighted imaging. Elevated relative cerebral blood volume and flow and percentile signal recovery were observed in one case with dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI.

CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic imaging features including hyperdense attenuation of the solid components and calcification along the inner rim on CT and susceptibility-weighted imaging may assist with preoperative diagnosis of CNS NB-FOXR2 in pediatric patients.

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