JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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A synthetic porphyrin as an effective dual antidote against carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning.

Simultaneous poisoning by carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide is the major cause of mortality in fire gas accidents. Here, we report on the invention of an injectable antidote against CO and cyanide (CN- ) mixed poisoning. The solution contains four compounds: iron(III)porphyrin (FeIII TPPS, F), two methyl-β-cyclodextrin (CD) dimers linked by pyridine (Py3CD, P) and imidazole (Im3CD, I), and a reducing agent (Na2 S2 O4 , S). When these compounds are dissolved in saline, the solution contains two synthetic heme models including a complex of F with P (hemoCD-P) and another one of F with I (hemoCD-I), both in their iron(II) state. hemoCD-P is stable in its iron(II) state and captures CO more strongly than native hemoproteins, while hemoCD-I is readily autoxidized to its iron(III) state to scavenge CN- once injected into blood circulation. The mixed solution (hemoCD-Twins) exhibited remarkable protective effects against acute CO and CN- mixed poisoning in mice (~85% survival vs. 0% controls). In a model using rats, exposure to CO and CN- resulted in a significant decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, which were restored by hemoCD-Twins in association with decreased CO and CN- levels in blood. Pharmacokinetic data revealed a fast urinary excretion of hemoCD-Twins with an elimination half-life of 47 min. Finally, to simulate a fire accident and translate our findings to a real-life scenario, we confirmed that combustion gas from acrylic cloth caused severe toxicity to mice and that injection of hemoCD-Twins significantly improved the survival rate, leading to a rapid recovery from the physical incapacitation.

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