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Quality improvement: Antimicrobial stewardship in pediatric primary care.

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is the resistance of microorganisms to antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, and antifungal medication resulting in increased healthcare costs with extended hospital stays in the United States. The goals of this quality improvement project were to increase the understanding and importance of antimicrobial stewardship by nurses and health care staff and increase pediatric parents'/guardians' knowledge of the proper use of antibiotics and differences between viruses and bacterial infections.

METHODS: A retrospective pre-post study was conducted in a midwestern clinic to determine if an antimicrobial stewardship teaching leaflet increased parent/guardian antimicrobial stewardship knowledge. The two interventions for patient education were a modified United States Center for Disease Control antimicrobial stewardship teaching leaflet and a poster regarding antimicrobial stewardship.

RESULTS: Seventy-six parents/guardians participated in the pre-intervention survey, with 56 being included in the post-intervention survey. There was a significant increase in knowledge between the pre-intervention survey and the post-intervention survey with a large effect size, p < .001, d = 0.86. This effect was also seen when comparing parents/guardians with no college education, who had a mean knowledge increased change score of 0.62, to those parents/guardians with a college education, whose mean knowledge increase was 0.23, p < .001 with a large effect size of 0.81. Health care staff thought the antimicrobial stewardship teaching leaflets and posters were beneficial.

PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The use of an antimicrobial stewardship teaching leaflet and a patient education poster may be effective interventions for improving healthcare staff's and pediatric parents'/guardians' knowledge of antimicrobial stewardship.

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