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Impact of a change to a novel chemiluminescent immunoassay for measuring plasma aldosterone on the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism.

Endocrine Journal 2023 Februrary 17
In Japan, the standard method for measuring plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) for primary aldosteronism (PA) diagnosis was changed from radioimmunoassay (RIA) to a novel chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). The purpose of this study is to simulate the possible impact of the change on PA diagnosis. This retrospective study assessed 2,289 PA patients. PACs measured by conventional RIA were transformed to estimated PACs (CLEIA) as follows: RIA (pg/mL) = 1.174 × CLEIA (pg/mL) + 42.3. We applied the estimated PAC (CLEIA) to the conventional cut-off of aldosterone-to-renin activity ratio ≥200 for screening and captopril challenge test (CCT) and PAC ≥60 pg/mL for saline infusion test (SIT). Application of the estimated PAC to screening and confirmatory tests decreased the number of PA diagnoses by 36% (743/2,065) on CCT and 52% (578/1,104) on SIT (discrepant cases). Among the discrepant cases, 87% (548/628) of CCT and 87% (452/522) of SIT were bilateral on adrenal venous sampling (AVS). Surgically treatable aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) were observed in 6% (36/579) and 5% (23/472) of discrepant cases on CCT and SIT, respectively; most were characterized by hypokalemia and/or adrenal nodule on CT imaging. Application of the PAC measured by the novel CLEIA to conventional cut-offs decreases the number of PA diagnoses. Although most discrepant cases were bilateral on AVS, there are some APA cases that were characterized by hypokalemia and/or adrenal tumor on CT. Further studies which evaluate PACs measured by both RIA and CLEIA for each patient are needed to identify new cut-offs for PAC measured by CLEIA.

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