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Risk factors of neonatal hypoglycemia in neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes.

Endocrine Journal 2023 Februrary 16
Hypoglycemia is one of the most significant problems in neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM). This study aimed to identify novel predictors of hypoglycemia in neonates born to mothers with GDM. A total of 443 term singleton infants from mothers diagnosed with GDM and cared for at Keio University Hospital between January 2013 and December 2019 were included in this study. Neonatal hypoglycemia was defined as hypoglycemia of less than 47 mg/dL at 1 or 2 or 4 h after birth, according to previous studies. Among 443 full-term singleton neonates born to mothers with GDM, 200 developed hypoglycemia (45%). Gestational weight gain (GWG), HbA1c at 1st trimester, HbA1c at GDM diagnosis, and the incidence of insulin therapy in the neonatal hypoglycemia group were significantly higher than those in the non-neonatal hypoglycemia group (p = 0.016, p = 0.032, p = 0.011, and p = 0.017, respectively). Regarding the multiple regression analysis adjusted for nulliparity, GWG, and gestational weeks at delivery, the odds ratio for maternal HbA1c ≥5.2% at 1st trimester was 1.63 (p = 0.034), and maternal insulin therapy during pregnancy was 1.72 (p = 0.015). In conclusion, HbA1c in the 1st trimester and insulin therapy during pregnancy were good predictors of hypoglycemia in neonates born to GDM mothers, especially when their HbA1c was 5.2% or more. Further research will be necessary to improve the perinatal management of hypoglycemia.

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