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Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review.

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the distribution profile of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus infections in Latin America and the Caribbean and to identify possible factors associated with the risk of dissemination and severity of these arboviruses.

METHODS: The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO platform. Searches were carried out in the following databases: Virtual Health Library, MEDLINE/PubMed, and Embase. The search terms were: Zika virus, Zika virus infection, dengue, dengue virus, chikungunya virus, chikungunya fever, epidemiology, observational study, Latin America, and Caribbean region. Studies that addressed the distribution of these arboviruses and the risk factors associated with dengue, Zika virus disease, and chikungunya, published between January 2000 and August 2020 in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, were included.

RESULTS: Of 95 studies included, 70 identified risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes for arbovirus infections and 25 described complications and/or deaths. The highest frequency of confirmed cases was for dengue. Brazil reported most cases of the three arboviruses in the period analyzed. Environmental and socioeconomic factors facilitated the proliferation and adaptation of vectors, and host-related factors were reported to aggravate dengue. Most deaths were due to chikungunya, Zika virus disease caused most neurological alterations, and dengue resulted in greater morbidity leading to more frequent hospitalization.

CONCLUSIONS: The review provides a broad view of the three arboviruses and the intrinsic aspects of infections, and highlights the factors that influence the spread of these viruses in the populations studied.

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