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Ocular Manifestations of Hurler-Scheie Syndrome: Recurrence of Host Disease in the Corneal Transplant.

Molecular Syndromology 2023 Februrary
INTRODUCTION: Hurler-Scheie syndrome is a type of mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS). In MPS I the decreased activity of alpha-L-iduronidase lysosomal enzyme leads to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deposition in the intra- and extracellular matrix. Excessive amounts of GAG can accumulate in most layers of the cornea, including epithelial cells, stromal keratocytes, and endothelial cells.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old female patient suffering from Hurler-Scheie syndrome with multiple ocular manifestations is reported. Due to significant bilateral corneal opacification, penetrating keratoplasty was performed on both eyes. Histopathologic examination of the corneal buttons showed disorganized collagen fibers with heterogenous thickness and many granule-containing keratocytes with excessive cytoplasm. Despite receiving enzyme replacement therapy, in vivo confocal microscopy revealed characteristic vacuoles in the basal epithelium and corneal stroma 96 months after transplantation. High resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography demonstrated hyperreflective opacities superficial and deeper in the stroma which was consistent with recurrence of host disease in the graft.

CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented Hurler-Scheie syndrome case of recurrence after penetrating keratoplasty demonstrated by in vivo confocal microscopy. Additionally, this patient manifested severe ocular involvement of MPS which might be an explanation of the progressive course of corneal opacification after transplantation.

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