JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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A review article on neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory role of vitamin-D3 in elderly COVID-19 patients.

Vitamin D3 is a secosteroid, broad-spectrum immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory hormone produced either by the internal subcutaneous pathway in the presence of ultraviolet B (UVB) rays or by the external pathway in the form of supplements. Vitamin D3 deficiency is a common and reversible contributor to mortality and morbidity among critically ill patients, including Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other viral infections. The major functions of vitamin D3 are inhibiting the proinflammatory pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (ILs-6), interleukin-18 (ILs-18), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF), preventing the loss of neural sensation in COVID-19, maintaining respiratory homeostasis, and acting as an antiviral, antimalarial, and antihypertensive agent. Vitamin D3 has an important role in reversing the COVID-19 infection in patients who have previously suffered from a neurological disease, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, stroke, cardiovascular problems, headache, sleep-associated disorder, and others. Moreover, vitamin D3 plays a key role in regulating the gene expression of different pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition to the information provided above, the current review article provides the most recent information on Vitamin D against COVID-19 with comorbid neurological disorders. Furthermore, we present the most recent advancement and molecular mechanism of action of vitamin D3. Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders are comorbid conditions, and vitamin D3 is a critical regulator of COVID-19 infection during these conditions. In the midst of the COVID-19 epidemic, factors such as sex, latitudes, nutrition, demography, pollution, and gut microbiota warrants for additional research on vitamin D supplements.

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