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Minimally invasive puncture with twist intraosseous drill needle combined with hematoma drainage in the treatment of acute epidural hematoma in pediatric patients: A technical note.

OBJECTIVE: The current neurosurgical intervention for treatment of acute epidural hematoma (AEDH) usually involves a craniotomy. Despite its effectiveness, open surgical decompression has several limitations. The twist intraosseous drill needle (TIDN) is considered a feasible alternative in adult patients with AEDH. AEDH treatment with TIDN in pediatric patients has not yet been described. The study aimed to report the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive puncture with a TIDN combined with hematoma drainage for the treatment of AEDH in pediatric patients.

METHODS: We retrospectively collected medical records of children with AEDH who underwent TIDN surgery at our institution from January 2017 to May 2021, and analyzed their clinical and imaging results. A detailed step-by-step surgical guide was provided.

RESULTS: Three pediatric patients with AEDH received TIDN treatment (including two males and one female; average age 7.66 years, range from 5 to 11 years). There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications in any case; 1 day after the operation, the AEDH was cleared in one of the three patients, and a slight hematoma remained in two patients. The remaining hematoma was evacuated after injecting urokinase into the hematoma cavity during indwelling drainage.

CONCLUSION: For pediatric patients with AEDH in a stable condition with a clear consciousness, TIDN puncture combined with hematoma drainage is safe, effective, and less invasive, and may present a viable surgical alternative option.

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