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The effect of changing respiratory rate settings on CO 2 levels during nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in premature infants.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the change in CO2 , when applying NIPPV with either a low or a high rate in stable premature infants.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, controlled, crossover study. Preterm infants on NIPPV were monitored by tcCO2 during two rate changes switching every hour between high (30 bpm) and low (10 bpm) set rates.

RESULTS: Fifty premature infants (mean ± SD: 28.3 ± 2.4 weeks' gestation) were enrolled. Each infant had two rate changes; therefore, a hundred rate changes were studied. The mean change in tcCO2 , i.e., ΔtcCO2 (95% confidence-interval), was -1.1 (-2.3 to 0.1) mmHg for increasing rate from low to high, and 0.46 (-0.49 to 1.41) mmHg for decreasing rate from high to low.

CONCLUSION: Multiplying or dividing the rate settings by three did not significantly change the tcCO2 readings an hour after the change. These findings could affect the management of ventilation settings of NIPPV in premature infants.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04836689 , The name of the trial registry: "Influence of Respiratory Rate Settings on CO2 Levels During Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV)."

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