Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Computer-Aided Measure of Chinese Handwriting Legibility (CAM-CHL) for School-Age Children.

IMPORTANCE: Handwriting legibility is the main criterion for determining whether a child has handwriting difficulties. A comprehensive assessment of handwriting legibility with sound psychometrics is essential to timely identification of handwriting difficulties and outcome measurement after handwriting interventions.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometrics of the Computer-Aided Measure of Chinese Handwriting Legibility (CAM-CHL) and to investigate Chinese handwriting legibility in school-age children using the CAM-CHL.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional, repeated observation, test-retest.

SETTING: Elementary schools in Taiwan.

PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 25 lower-grade children for the examination of test-retest reliability, 75 children from all grade levels, and 10 senior schoolteachers for the examination of the CAM-CHL's convergent validity and the investigation of handwriting legibility.

OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Children were asked to copy a set of Chinese characters as legibly as possible. We used the CAM-CHL to assess handwriting legibility in four domains: Size, Orientation, Position, and Deformation. The schoolteachers were asked to subjectively assess the handwriting legibility using a 3-point Likert-type scale.

RESULTS: The CAM-CHL demonstrated good to excellent test-retest reliability and acceptable random measurement error in all legibility domains. The CAM-CHL had fair to moderate convergent validity with schoolteachers' perceptions. Additionally, upper-grade children had better handwriting legibility in the Size and Position domains than lower-grade children.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The CAM-CHL, a comprehensive and objective method of assessing Chinese handwriting legibility, has sound reliability and acceptable validity, suggesting its potential as an outcome measure for school-age children. What This Article Adds: The CAM-CHL can be used in comprehensive evaluations of Chinese handwriting legibility in school-age children. The CAM-CHL has acceptable psychometrics for use as an outcome measure.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app