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Tinnitus Evaluation in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus at Tertiary Hospital Malaysia.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of tinnitus in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) patients, to evaluate its severity and to correlate it with estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) as well as glycaemia control (HbA1c).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study at Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz (HCTM) from a period of 15 months. A total of 133 T1DM patients who fulfilled our study's criteria were subjected to otoscopy examination, tuning fork test and free field voice test. The mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) was used to assess the severity of tinnitus. We were careful to categorize the perceived duration of tinnitus.

RESULTS: The prevalence of tinnitus among T1DM patients was 24.1% (32/133 patients). Out of 32 patients, approximately 78.1% (25 patients) had a compensated level of tinnitus distress and the remaining 21.9% (7/32) had moderate tinnitus. The duration of tinnitus ranged from 2 seconds to 2 minutes, whıch was ringing and intermittent in nature. The HbA1c and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) were higher in tinnitus compared to the non-tinnitus group. There was no significant correlation between the severity of tinnitus and HbA1c level or eGFR.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study concluded that tinnitus amongst T1DM patients was likely to be non-pathological in view of its short duration with minimal to no distress to the sufferers. An elevated HbA1c may increase the risk of developıng tinnitus.

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