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Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Ileostomy Complications: An Updated Review.

Curēus 2023 January
An ileostomy is associated with multiple complications that may frequently or persistently affect the life of ostomates. All healthcare professionals should have knowledge of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ileostomy complications. Peristomal dermatitis is caused by watery and highly alkaline effluent. Skin protective products are typically used for local treatment. Ischemia/necrosis occurs due to insufficient arterial blood supply. Retraction is seen in patients with a bulky mesentery and occurs following ischemia. Convex stoma appliances can be used for skin protection against fecal leakage. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is common and occurs only at the stoma site. Trans-stomal decompression is most effective in these cases. High output stoma (HOS) is defined as a condition when the output exceeds 1,000 - 2,000 ml/day, lasting for one to three days. Treatment includes intravenous fluid and electrolyte resuscitation followed by restriction of hypotonic fluid and the use of antimotility (and antisecretory) drugs. Stomal prolapse is a full-thickness protrusion of an inverted bowel. Manual reduction is attempted initially, whereas emergency bowel resection may be needed for incarcerated cases. A parastomal hernia (PSH) is an incisional hernia of the stoma site. Surgery is considered in cases of incarceration, but most cases are manageable with non-surgical treatment.

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