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End-stage kidney disease in Brunei Darussalam (2011-2020).

INTRODUCTION: The Brunei Dialysis and Transplant Registry (BDTR) recorded data on patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) from 2011 to 2020, mainly for planning of services and benchmarking of standards. We report the trends of epidemiologic and performance parameters, compare performances between modalities of Kidney Replacement Therapy and evaluate the survival of ESKD patients over the 10-year period.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three groups of data were analysed from the BDTR over the 10-year period. Epidemiological data, blood parameters and dialysis are key performance indicators.

RESULTS: There are increments in prevalence and incidence of treated ESKD patients in Brunei over 10 years, especially with haemodialysis (HD). The projected prevalence and incidence showed an anticipated annual increase of 42.2 per million population (pmp) and 9.9 pmp respectively. Diabetes mellitus (DM) (79%) was the main cause of ESKD. HD (86%), peritoneal dialysis (PD) (9%) and transplant (5%) were the main modalities of kidney replacement therapy in 2020. Cumulative results over the decade showed significant improvements in serum phosphate, peritonitis rates and HD blood flow rates. PD patients have better survival rates, lower systolic blood pressure and better adequacy. PD survival (patient survival of 91%, 73% and 56% at 1, 3 and 5 years respectively) was superior to HD survival (86% and 64% at 1 and 2 years, respectively), but patient demographics (age and DM status) were different. The 2020 dataset showed satisfactory anaemia management but mineral bone disease management was sub-optimal. Seventy percent of prevalent HD patients had arteriovenous fistula access. Thirty-two percent and fifty-two percent of HD and PD patients, respectively, achieved target dialysis adequacy. Peritonitis rate was 0.3 episodes per patient year.

CONCLUSION: Brunei has a high incidence and prevalence of treated ESKD in the last decade, especially DM-related ESKD. This study has identified many specific areas to be targeted for improvements and provided evidence for further proliferation of PD and transplant preference policy.

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