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Cytogenetic Risk Stratification of B-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Its Correlation with Other Prognostic Factors.

Purpose of current study was to categorize WHO defined B-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL) cases into 3 cytogenetic risk groups (good, intermediate and poor) and to see their correlation with age, NCI risk criteria and treatment response. Clinical and diagnostic details were collected for 78 newly diagnosed B-ALL patients which included bone marrow morphology, flow cytometry immunophenotyping, karyotyping, FISH and RT-PCR. Study cohort comprised 44/78 (56.4%) children including 3 infants and 34/78 (43.6%) adults. Median age for paediatric group was 6 years (3 months-17 years) and for adults was 40.5 years (18 to 75 years). According to NCI risk criteria, excluding infants, 54 (72%) were high risk and 21 (28%) were standard risk. Clonal cytogenetic abnormality was detected in 59/78 cases (75.6%), while 19/78 (24.4%) cases showed normal karyotype. There was significant association of cytogenetic risk groups to age distribution ( p value < 0.001) and NCI risk groups ( p value < 0.001). There was no significant correlation of CNS involvement with cytogenetic risk groups ( p = 0.064). Association of Day 8 steroid response and Day 15 bone marrow status with cytogenetic risk groups was significant ( p  = 0.006 and p  = 0.003 respectively). Post treatment bone marrow status on Day 33 and Day 79 was available for 52 and 42 cases respectively. 9 adults died during induction phase. Day 33 post induction morphological remission was achieved in 51/52 cases (98%) and 1/52 (2.0%) were not in remission. Day 79 post induction morphological remission was achieved in 41/42 cases (98%) and 1/42 (2.0%) were not in remission. Day 33 or End of induction flow MRD (measurable residual disease) was negative in 39/52 (75.0%) patients and positive in 13/52 (25.0%) patients. Day 79 flow MRD was negative in 37/42 (88.1%) and positive in 5/42 (11.9%). Cytogenetic risk groups showed statistically significant Day 33 and Day 79 treatment response (morphologic remission: p  = 0.009 and 0.003, flow MRD: p  = 0.004 and p  = 0.012 respectively). We concluded that cytogenetic risk groups showed statistically significant association with age, NCI risk criteria and treatment response.

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