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Burden, Incidence, Mortality and Lethality of Maternal Disorders in Mexico 1990-2019: An Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

BACKGROUND: Estimates of the sub-national distribution of maternal disorders in Mexico beyond Maternal Mortality Ratios are scarce. Characterizing the sub-national variation of maternal disorders may make it possible to focus more on interventions and thereby reduce their occurrence in a more meaningful and sustained manner.

AIM: To analyze and describe the sub-national distribution, magnitude, trends and changes in the contribution of maternal causes to women's loss of health in Mexico from 1990-2019.

METHODS: Using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 study, we describe the distribution and trends of maternal mortality ratio (MMR), mortality rate, case-fatality rate and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to maternal causes, at both national and state levels.

RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2019, DALYs attributable to maternal causes had decreased 59.5%, mortality 63.8%, and incidence 46.5%. However, Maternal Mortality Ratio only decreased by 33%. The case-fatality rate of maternal disorders decreased by 50% overall; although for obstructed labor and uterine rupture, it remained unchanged. Lethality showed great variation between states, with a 3 fold difference between the maximum and minimum values.

CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality and incidence of maternal causes in Mexico have greatly decreased in the last 30 years, these changes mostly reflect declines in fertility. The decrease seen in case-fatality rates is driven by decreases in causes such as hypertension and hemorrhage, though for others it remained constant. Efforts should be directed at improving access to, and management of, locally frequent maternal emergencies, formulating tailor-made regional interventions for maternal health.

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