Toxicologic Pathology Forum: Opinion on Approaches for Reporting Toxic and Adverse Dose Levels in Nonclinical Toxicology Studies Supporting the Development of Anticancer Pharmaceuticals.
The advancement of an investigational new drug in humans is a significant developmental milestone. In first-in-human (FIH)-enabling toxicology studies, the highest dose without a test article-related adverse effect (no-observed-adverse-effect-level [NOAEL]) serves as the basis for deriving a safe FIH starting dose. For anticancer pharmaceuticals, the FIH dose may be calculated using the highest non-severely toxic dose (HNSTD) in nonrodent models or the dose severely toxic to 10% (STD10 ) in rodents. Given the practice of reporting the NOAEL, but the lack of regulatory requirements to do so for anticancer pharmaceuticals, we conducted an informal survey of 20 companies to answer the question "How is our industry reporting toxic/adverse dose levels in FIH-enabling toxicology studies for anticancer indications?" The data indicated 4 reporting approaches, each providing a path to regulatory acceptance. Within the integrated toxicology study report, 45% of respondents report the HNSTD/STD10 , 25% report the NOAEL, 20% report both the HNSTD/STD10 and NOAEL, and 10% do not define either, reserving definitions for regulatory submissions. One reporting approach may be preferred over another for reasons including consistency across indications, repurposing pharmaceuticals, regulatory feedback, or simplicity. The reporting approach should be defined in advance of study initiation, and the pathologist should provide context to support the chosen approach.
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