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A surprising finding: The curious case of a tongue lesion misdiagnosed as paracoccidioidomycosis.

BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic mycosis caused by members of the Paracoccidioides genus. Brazil remains the focus area and, to a lesser extent, the disease has been reported from Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela.

AIMS: A Venezuelan Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain, isolated from a patient diagnosed with chronic multifocal paracoccidioidomycosis, was subjected to whole genome sequencing to provide more insight about Paracoccidioides outside the endemic focus area.

METHODS: P. brasiliensis strain CBS 118890 was whole genome sequenced using nanopore; library preparation with the 'native barcoding genomic DNA kit' was followed by sequencing on Flongle and MinION flowcells. Batches of strain CBS 118890 were re-identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and final identification was made based on phylogenetic analysis.

RESULTS: Surprisingly, the Venezuelan P. brasiliensis strain CBS 118890 turned out to be a Nannizziopsis species. The batches of this strain were ITS sequenced followed by phylogenetic analysis and resulted in the final identification of Nannizziopsis arthrosporioides.

CONCLUSIONS: Nannizziopsis infections are commonly seen in a wide variety of reptiles, but are particularly rare in human infections. This case underlines the need for molecular characterization of cases that clinically mimic paracoccidioidomycosis but that are serologically negative for Paracoccidioides.

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