JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Gastric cancer in 2022: Is there still a role for endoscopic ultrasound?

Gastric cancer (GC) represents the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide and many factors can influence its development (diet, geographic area, genetic, Helicobacter pylori or Epstein-Barr virus infections). High quality endoscopy represents the modality of choice for GC diagnosis. The correct morphologic classification during a high-resolution endoscopy is fundamental for oncologic diagnosis, staging and therapeutic decisions. Since its initial introduction in clinical practice the endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been considered a valuable tool for tumor (T-) and lymph nodes (N-) staging also in GC, in order to establish the best therapeutic strategy for the patient ( e.g. , upfront surgery vs neoadjuvant treatments). EUS tools as elastography, Doppler and contrast administration can improve diagnosis mainly in case of malignant lymph node evaluation. EUS has a marginal role in disease staging but has a fundamental role in case of a pre-endoscopic resection management and in the new era of endoscopic mucosal resection or submucosal dissection as minimally invasive surgery. Diagnosis and locoregional staging of GC with EUS are a method of inarguable value for the assessment of gastric wall involvement and presence of infiltrated paragastric lymph nodes. EUS can also have a role in disease restaging in those patients who have undergone neoadjuvant treatment. EUS can also have a role in the advanced phases of the disease, in facilitating palliative, minimally-invasive treatments, such as gastroenterostomy or biliary drainages. This review intends to discuss the modern role of EUS in GC topic.

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