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Meta-Analysis
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Systematic Review
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Outcomes of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Maintenance Therapy with or without Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in First Complete Remission: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare outcomes of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) maintenance therapy with or without allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first remission (CR1). A literature search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane, and Clinical trials.gov. After screening 1720 articles, 12 studies were included. Proportions and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. I2 provides an estimate of the percentage of variability in results across studies that is due to real differences and not due to chance. Of 1039 patients, 635 (61%) had TKI alone and 404 (39%) patients had HSCT followed by TKI. At 3 years, a trend towards poor overall survival (OS; OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.39-1.15, I2  = 68%), (disease-free survival; OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.26-1.29, I2  = 76%), and higher relapse rate (RR; OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.66-3.83, I2  = 26%) was seen with TKI alone compared to HSCT-TKI. Although HSCT followed by TKI maintenance in Ph+ ALL has long been considered standard of care, the introduction of potent third-generation TKIs and bispecific T-cell engagers such as Blinatumomab has significantly improved outcomes while sparing the need for HSCT in newly diagnosed patients.

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