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Subdural evacuation port system and middle meningeal artery embolization for chronic subdural hematoma: a multicenter experience.

OBJECTIVE: Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization and the Subdural Evacuation Port System (SEPS) are minimally invasive treatment paradigms for chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). Although SEPS offers acute decompression of local mass effect from a cSDH, MMA embolization has been shown to reduce the rate of cSDH recurrence. In combination, these procedures present a potentially safer strategy to a challenging pathology. The authors present a multi-institutional retrospective case series that assessed the safety, efficacy, and complications of SEPS and MMA embolization for cSDH.

METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent SEPS placement and MMA embolization for cSDH between 2018 and 2021 at three institutions.

RESULTS: One hundred patients with 136 cSDHs and a median age of 73 years underwent both SEPS placement and MMA embolization. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale scores were between 14 and 15 in 81% of patients and between 9 and 13 in 14%. The median initial midline shift (MLS) was 7 mm, with subdural hematoma (SDH) in the left hemisphere (lh) in 30% of patients, right hemisphere (rh) in 34%, and bilateral hemispheres in 36%. Follow-up was available for 86 patients: 93.4% demonstrated decreased MLS, and all patients with lhSDH and rhSDH demonstrated progressive decrease in SDH size. The overall complication rate was 4%, including 1 case of facial palsy and 3 cases of iatrogenic acute SDH. Two subjects (2%) required craniotomy for hematoma evacuation. The rate of good functional outcomes, with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score < 2, was 89% on final follow-up and the overall mortality rate was 2%. A good mRS score on admission was associated with increased odds of functional improvement at follow-up (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: SEPS placement with MMA embolization for cSDH can be done safely and effectively reduces cSDH size with minimal perioperative morbidity.

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