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Diabetic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes: a consensus statement from the Swiss Societies of Diabetes and Nephrology.

Swiss Medical Weekly 2023 January 7
Diabetic kidney disease is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes and is a major cause of end-stage renal disease in Switzerland. Patients with diabetic kidney disease are among the most complex patients in diabetes care. They require a multifactorial and multidisciplinary approach with the goal to slow the decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and cardiovascular morbidity. With this consensus we propose an evidence-based guidance to health care providers involved in the care of type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic kidney disease.First, there is a need to increase physician awareness and improve screening for diabetic kidney disease as early intervention may improve clinical outcomes and the financial burden. Evaluation of estimated GFR (eGFR) and spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio is recommended at least annually. Once it is diagnosed, glucose control and optimisation of blood pressure control with renin-angiotensin system blockers have been recommended as mainstay management of diabetic kidney disease for more than 20 years. Recent, high quality randomised controlled trials have shown that sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition slows eGFR decline and cardiovascular events beyond glucose control. Likewise, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism with finerenone has cardiorenal protective effects in diabetic kidney disease. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor agonists improve weight loss if needed, and decrease albuminuria and cardiovascular morbidity. Lipid control is also important to decrease cardiovascular events. All these therapies are included in the treatment algorithms proposed in this consensus. With advancing kidney failure, other challenges may rise, such as hyperkalaemia, anaemia and metabolic acidosis, as well as chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. These different topics and treatment strategies are discussed in this consensus. Finally, an update on diabetes management in renal replacement therapy such as haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation is provided. With the recent developments of efficient therapies for diabetic kidney disease, it has become evident that a consensus document is necessary. We are optimistic that it will significantly contribute to a high-quality care for patients with diabetic kidney disease in Switzerland in the future.

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