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Preventing Respiratory Viral Diseases with Antimicrobial Peptide Master Regulators in the Lung Airway Habitat.

Clinics and Practice 2023 January 17
The vast surface area of the respiratory system acts as an initial site of contact for microbes and foreign particles. The whole respiratory epithelium is covered with a thin layer of the airway and alveolar secretions. Respiratory secretions contain host defense peptides (HDPs), such as defensins and cathelicidins, which are the best-studied antimicrobial components expressed in the respiratory tract. HDPs have an important role in the human body's initial line of defense against pathogenic microbes. Epithelial and immunological cells produce HDPs in the surface fluids of the lungs, which act as endogenous antibiotics in the respiratory tract. The production and action of these antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are critical in the host's defense against respiratory infections. In this study, we have described all the HDPs secreted in the respiratory tract as well as how their expression is regulated during respiratory disorders. We focused on the transcriptional expression and regulation mechanisms of respiratory tract HDPs. Understanding how HDPs are controlled throughout infections might provide an alternative to relying on the host's innate immunity to combat respiratory viral infections.

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