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Incidence and Mortality of Pediatric Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

INTRODUCTION: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension with systemic, multiorgan effects and is associated with high mortality, yet the national incidence and mortality rates of pediatric ACS remain unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and mortality of pediatric ACS over a 13-year period across multiple children's hospitals and between individual children's hospitals in the United States.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on children (aged < 18 y) with ACS in the Pediatric Health Information Systems database from 2007 to 2019. We identified ACS patients by International Classification of Diseases codes in the ninth and 10th revision. The primary outcomes were incidence and mortality, which were analyzed by year, age, and hospital of admission.

RESULTS: Across 49 children's hospitals, we identified 2887 children with ACS from 2007 to 2019 in the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. The overall incidence of ACS was 0.17% and the overall mortality was 48.87%. There was no significant difference in annual incidence (P = 0.12) or mortality (P = 0.39) over the study period. There was no difference in incidence across age group (P = 0.38); however, mortality in patients 0-30 d old (58.61%) was significantly higher than older age groups (P < 0.0001). The hospital-specific incidence (0.04%-0.46%) and mortality (28.57%-71.43%) varied widely.

CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence and mortality of pediatric ACS are unchanged from 2007 to 2019. ACS mortality remains high, especially in neonatal intensive care unit patients. No obvious correlation is seen between incidence rates and mortality. Differing hospital-specific incidence and mortality could suggest inconsistencies between institutions that affect pediatric ACS care, perhaps with respect to recognition and diagnosis.

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